Friday, 31 May 2013

Guy Lyon Playfair

I have met Playfair a few times, and it was his book with the title The Unknown Power which drew me to psychical research, and metaphysics back in 1977. RS.

Guy Lyon Playfair (born 5 April 1935) is a freelance writer and translator best known for his books about parapsychology.[1][2][3][4]
Additionally, Playfair has worked for several U.S., British and Brazilian magazines, newspapers and publishing houses. From 1967 to 1971 he worked in the press section of the U.S. Agency for International Development in Rio de Janeiro. Widely travelled, he has lived in Brazil for several years. His books have been translated into about 15 languages. He has also written numerous articles for magazines in several countries, and has worked as researcher and consultant on numerous radio and television programmes.
For two years, Guy Playfair worked with IBPP, Brazil's first and only serious psychical research organization. He has been a member of the British Society for Psychical Research since 1973 and was elected to its Council in 2004. He has contributed several articles and book reviews to its journal and newsletter.
In his first book, The Unknown Power (first published as The Flying Cow by Souvenir Press Ltd., U.K. 1975) he brings a wide reading in the literature of psychical research to bear on Brazilian paranormal phenomena, including those events connected with Francisco Candido 'Chico' Xavier, Zé Arigó and others. In The Indefinite Boundary (first published by Souvenir Press Ltd., U.K. 1976), Guy Playfair reviews evidence for the existence of psychic phenomena.
He wrote a study of time cycles in connection with paranormal phenomena in The Cycles of Heaven (1978). With Maurice Grosse he investigated the Enfield Poltergeist over one year, as recorded in This House is Haunted (1980). If This Be Magic, an inquiry into hypnotism (both 1985). He then collaborated with Uri Geller on The Geller Effect (1986).

Selected bibliography [edit]

References [edit]

  1. ^ [1] Twin Telepathy By Guy Lyon Playfair
  2. ^ The Geller effect Uri Geller, Guy Lyon Playfair - 1986 - Page 189
  3. ^ Creeping Flesh: The Horror Fantasy Film Book David Kerekes - 2003 - Page 61
  4. ^ Encyclopedia of occultism & parapsychology Leslie Shepard, Lewis Spence, Nandor Fodor - 1991 - 2008 - Page 655

External links [edit]


Parapsychology, and the TED "Controversy".

May 2013


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In recent weeks a public controversy has emerged over scientific research into the nature of consciousness. It involves IONS scientists, as well as some of our colleagues, and may reflect shifting attitudes about frontier research, so we want to share a little about it with you here.

TED, the popular conference organizer with the tag line "ideas worth spreading," recently removed videos of two TEDx talks from their official YouTube channel and then cancelled a TEDx event. The censored talks and cancelled event had a common theme—exploring the possibility that consciousness extends beyond the brain. TED's justification for their actions was that the contributors were promoting "pseudo-science." The videos were talks presented by Rupert Sheldrake and Graham Hancock, and the event presenters included Russell Targ, Larry Dossey, and IONS' Marilyn Schlitz.

TED's actions, based on recommendations from its anonymous "Science Board," kicked off a heated Internet discussion and shed light on how some segments of the scientific mainstream tend to stifle conversation on the nature of consciousness, including the kind of cutting-edge research that IONS conducts. However, the enormous attention this controversy has received, and the discussion it generated, may signal a shift towards more openness to including the possibility of non-local consciousness into scientific dialogues.

"Based on the thousands of comments generated by TED's action, I think it is clear that the majority of TED fans were very upset with TED," said IONS Chief Scientist Dean Radin, "and contrary to TED's complaint that these people were legions of woo-woo fans, many of the commenters explicitly said that they were quite skeptical of this line of research and that their primary concern was about TED's act of censorship, because the scientific process requires open dialog, otherwise it isn't science any more."

Radin is part of a group of scientists, headed by Deepak Chopra, who pushed back hard on TED's recent moves with open letters on the Huffington Post, and in many commentaries published on the web. They argued that the history of science shows that scientific breakthroughs often come from researchers working outside the mainstream, so attempting to censor frontier science runs contrary to the very spirit of scientific exploration. Neil Theise, MD, commented, "Sheldrake and Hancock may be wrong in their ideas, but we do not yet know. Even if they are, the creativity of their work and their insistence on looking at aberrations and exceptions is certainly of value, at least to point the way to the kinds of creative explorations TED hopes to foster."

In response to the massive outpouring of public comments, the videos of Rupert Sheldrake and Graham Hancock were eventually re-posted by TED, but on their lower-profile TED Blog. TED revoked the license for TEDx West Hollywood's planned conference "Brother, Can You Spare a Paradigm?" but that program ultimately went ahead without TED's sponsorship.

It is encouraging to see these issues discussed in a public forum, and to witness the strong support for more open conversation and inclusion. To explore this issue in more depth, you can use the links in the preceding paragraphs, or start here: Dear TED, Is It 'Bad Science' or a 'Game of Thrones'? 

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Wednesday, 29 May 2013

CNERIC Research in France

21MAY  1213 blog article from Dr Penny Sartori

At the beginning of May, Sonia Barkallah from S17 Productions in France came to visit me along with Corinne Musitelli who is her translator. We discussed ways of working together which I am very excited about. I have a lot to report so I will put a few postings in the coming weeks about my future work with Sonia. I will and also give more details about Sonia’s excellent DVD called Untimely Departure, keep following the blog for more details of this.
Sonia brought a short DVD recording of the CNERIC research protocol which has been conducted in France by Dr Jean-Pierre Postel. I was previously unaware of this research so I thought I’d mention it to the followers of the blog.
The Protocol
An IPAD is placed in a sealed box (there is a small hole big enough for the electric cable to plug in the IPAD). No one can see inside the box and, once sealed, hologram stickers are placed over the sides to ensure that the box is not tampered with thus preventing the possibility of fraud. The box is gift wrapped and the IPAD is plugged into the mains power supply.
Secret messages generated randomly from a database appear on the screen of the IPAD. These messages are displayed for an hour. The message is then deleted and replaced with another message and this is repeated every hour until the experiment is completed. The messages along with the time and date they were displayed are all logged and retrieved from a desktop computer.
All medical and nursing staff present at the time of any resuscitation are asked to complete a questionnaire in order to verify if the report of the NDE / OBE is correct.
The reason that the IPAD is in a sealed box if because, approximately 3 years ago, Dr Jean-Pierre Jourdan, who is president of IANDS, France, encountered a patient in his care who reported an OBE / NDE. The patient reported actually being inside the machine that was at his bedside. The patient believed that he was able to see inside the machine and described the different electrical components he could see from inside.
According to Sonia, computer scientist Remi Andre had the idea for this research protocol.
In previously documented cases of NDEs / OBEs some people have described seeing by transparency. Apparently, it has been reported that approximately 18% of people who had OBEs had reported being able to see through objects in their line of vision (however, I am unsure as to who published this report). This was reported by Patient 10 in my study – he believed that he was higher then the ceiling and it’s as if the ceiling had disappeared. So it is good to see this research exploring another aspect of the OBE.
This research has already been conducted by Dr Postel in one small hospital, with only one resuscitation room. Unfortunately, the research was brought to a premature end as hospital staff were concerned from a health and safety perspective that leaving the IPAD plugged in continuously could have been a fire hazard. There was also a question of funding and more money is needed to proceed with the research and continue with it in more hospitals. There has been no publication from this study so far.
Having looked at the protocol in more depth I was very impressed and believe it is probably the most thorough protocol that I have seen so far. Most importantly, it has taken into account previous research and it has built on the previous prospective studies and made improvements. I particularly like the way the box is sealed and hologram stickers are in place to prevent fraud. It has come a long way from the A4 laminated symbols that were hidden behind cardboard ridges on tops of the cardiac monitors that I used in my research! This is one of the great things about our technological advances, this technology allows the messages to randomly change every hour and no one has to spend lots of time and energy climbing up on ladders to damp dust the hidden images then rotating the images to different monitors every week!
I’m sure there will be further technological advancements that would overcome the issue with keeping the IPAD being plugged in. Let’s hope there is more funding to continue this very important research.

Penny Sartori was a nurse for 17 years in the Intensive Therapy Unit of a major hospital. Early in her career, a connection she made with a dying patient totally changed her life. After undertaking a five year research project into near-death experiences, Penny was awarded a PhD and has written, lectured and broadcast widely, and is now one of the UK's foremost experts on the subject of NDEs.

The Scole Report

Scole Report

Scole Report

by Montague Keen, Arthur Ellison & David Fontana


This edition is the reprint of the original report published in 1999 in the Proceedings of the Society of Psychical Research. In 1994 the development of psychic phenomena in Robin Foy's Group at the Scole Farmhouse came to the attention of the Society of Psychical Research.
This report is the outcome of a two year investigation of the Group. It was conducted principally by three senior members of the Society for Psychical Research - the authors of this report. The authors' diverse professional backgrounds together with their many years of investigation of paranormal phenomena and the fact that most of the events described were experienced or witnessed simultaneously by at least three seasoned investigators improves the probability of authenticity.
In the course of over 20 sittings, from 1995 to 1997, the investigators, together with other occasional researchers/sitters, witnessed a wide range of phenomena and were unable to detect any direct indication of fraud or deception. They encountered evidence favouring the hypothesis of intelligent forces able to influence material objects, and to convey associated meaningful messages, both visual and aural.
Scole Plate 17aIn 1992 Robin Foy established a small home circle in the cellar of his home near Diss in Norfolk. By the end of August 1994, the development of physical phenomena had progressed dramatically and Foy and his wife Sandra dedicated themselves to what, according to their spirit advisers, was to become the centre for the development of a new type of spirit energy without the traditional ectoplasmic extrusions.

In the winter of 1994 the existence of the Group came to the attention of the Society of Psychical Research. This report is the outcome of a two year investigation of the Group. It has been conducted principally by three senior members of the Society for Psychical Research – the authors of this report.
The authors' diverse professional backgrounds of psychology, electrical engineering, agricultural administration/farming together with their many years of investigation of paranormal phenomena and the fact that most of the events described were experienced or witnessed simultaneously by at least three seasoned investigators improves the probability of authenticity.
In the course of over 20 sittings, from 1995 to 1997, the investigators, together with other occasional researchers/sitters, were unable to detect any direct indication of fraud or deception, and encountered evidence favouring the hypothesis of intelligent forces, whether originating in the human psyche or from discarnate sources, able to influence material objects, and to convey associated meaningful messages, both visual and aural.
Alan Murdie in his Introduction to this new edition states that the Scole Report is a valuable document for the wider study of alleged cases of spontaneous physical phenomena. The hope of psychical researchers is that analysis of cumulative data will yield deeper understanding of the factors at work, and The Scole Report provides potentially significant data both for the assessment of earlier cases, and for any cases that may arise in the future.
Chapter 9 Film Phenomena
Scole Report Plate 16-4What turned out to be the last of the film strips, and in at least one respect the most puzzling, derived from another 36-frame roll of Kodachrome 200 film. We have called this the Daguerre film because the written name of Louis Daguerre, pioneer of photography, appeared after the script which read: Can you see behind the Moon? (Plate 16). The film was developed following a sitting on 24th January 1997 (Sitting 25), attended by Prof. Donald West (DW), Dr Alan Gauld (AG) and MK, as part of what had been intended to be a series at which distinguished SPR researchers and others were to be invited to participate in experiments, or witness phenomena, or perhaps both. The sitting was prefaced by what by now had become a familiar procedure, in which the two visitors were invited to place two new Kodachrome film tubs (part of the batch bought by MK, stored at Hertfordshire University, and dispatched thence by Dr Wiseman direct to Prof. West) into the Alan and Keen boxes. MK produced his own padlock for the Alan box, locked it after DW had placed his film inside, and put the key in his car. The second tub was placed in the Keen box by AG who secured it with the combination lock MK had bought. AG memorised the four-figure setting number, and kept it to himself.
When DW, AG and MK entered the séance room, they placed the two boxes on a piece of plain paper in a central position on the table, as determined by alignment with the luminous direction-indicator tabs. The boxes abutted one another, and DW traced their outlines onto the paper, including the irregular shape made by the padlocks resting on it. After the sitting, DW, AG and MK each checked to ensure there had been no sign of movement of either box. Because the Group wished to retain the Alan box for further experiments, the investigators opened it after the sitting, removed the tub containing the film and placed this in a Jiffybag, which AG sealed and signed and handed to MK, together with the padlocked Keen box, so that they could both be taken to Wimbledon the following Monday for development. Having been requested accordingly, the manager at Wimbledon certified that the Jiffybag seals were intact, obtained the combination from Dr Gauld by telephone, and opened the Keen box.
In the event the film in this box proved blank, whereas the Alan box film carried l.3 metres of drawings, hieroglyphs, abstract imagery (for want of a more apposite description), the initials RS in two places, and some monograms. This film, which as indicated we have called after Daguerre, has generated considerable research, several further hints from later discussions with the Team, and thus far a failure to establish the full relevance or significance of the message or of the hieroglyphs, or the identity of RS and his supposed relationship to Daguerre. We examine the fraud hypothesis in some detail in Chapters XIV and XV. Here we are primarily concerned with the circumstances relating to the film's production and our attempts to discover the meaning of its message.
We proceeded on the assumption that the message was not intended as a meaningless game devised by the Team, but had been as carefully thought out as the Wordsworth films appeared to be, and that it was designed to demonstrate the Team's declared intention to bring further and better evidence of survival, and of the capacity of deceased souls to communicate by a method reflecting their thought-forms rather than our own. This assumption could, of course, have been mistaken, and in that case it would have been pointless even to attempt to discover a meaning. However, earlier films certainly had meanings, or reflected intentions, even though several were by no means entirely clear to us. But that meanings were in fact intended in the Daguerre film was evident from conversations with EB and Edwin spread over three sessions, that on the evening when the films were introduced and apparently worked on, 24th January 1997, and two subsequent sittings, on 8th and 28th February. The first, which of course took place two days before the film had been processed, contained the following exchange:–
Edwin: I believe that someone, a Frenchman, has . . . perhaps that’s all I should say: Monty does like a puzzle.
EB: He’s going off them!
Edw: Well, I don’t think it’s going to be too difficult . . . when you know who it is. When you look at his work a few more puzzles will fall into place. Just one other word, well two words — “the moon” . . . Oh, I must tell you, it’s probably the longest attempt they have made, in length.
EB: Someone is saying the initial ‘R’ is there.
While all these hints accurately forecast what was to appear on the 1.3 metre-long film strip, they contributed little to explaining its meaning. Time spent subsequently by MK in the print room at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London showed that the writing bore no relation to Daguerre’s normal signature. A subsequent sitting on February 8th, at which DF, IS, WS and MK were all present as investigators, contained the following:–
Edw: Can you see behind the Moon? [a repetition of the first message in the Daguerre film]
MK: No, I can’t see where it comes from.
Edw: Well Louis can.
IS: Louis Stevenson?
MK: No!
DF: Louis Pasteur?
MK: No, Louis Daguerre — but it isn’t his signature. That’s one of my complaints. I don’t mind being teased, but I think that’s misleading.
EB: We said there was a Frenchman there.
MK: If he was, and he signed it . . .
EB: Who said so? Not the same at all . . .
DF: His name was just written there.
Edw: There is another signature who was responsible.
MK: The RS? That was there, certainly.
Edw: Not in the hand of RS, even.
RF: Did RS have a French connection?
MK: There is one other letter.
Edw (slightly impatiently): “Can you see behind the Moon”: that’s where you must look.
MK: Right.
Edw: It was all because someone was in prison.
DF: Oh, that was a clue to that.
EB: Think about the work, the work of the signature.
Edw: Have you found any of his work?
MK [on the assumption that ‘his’ referred to Daguerre]: Oh yes, I looked up Daguerre’s work, quite a bit of it. I saw nothing that was the back of the moon, but maybe I didn’t look carefully enough. I haven’t done as much research into it as I really ought.
EB: Look into his other interests.
MK: Daguerre?
EB: Yes, you see I’m being awfully sweet to you.
MK: If you could manage to put a little more saccharine into the tea . . .
DF: Other interests?
MK: Fox Talbot had other interests, and Louis Daguerre, but I haven’t tracked down the Fox Talbot reference yet.
DF: That may not be a reference.
EB: I wouldn’t put too much money on that. Not yet. Wait for something further.
RF: Do you know if RS had a French connection at all?
EB: I’m not giving that away! [after indications that RS was not connected to poetry or children’s books .  . ]:
MK: Very much like the Paris Metro, the writing, 1890’s style.
EB: Oh well, not surprised.
MK: Ah!
Edw: Yes Monty, you have to look beyond what the text books tell you, beyond the obvious career of the person involved . . . something a bit deeper, more  obscure. Then you will find your answers. Find out about the work of the  man, the Frenchman. Then you will find out a lot more about that particular experiment.
MK found some of these hints so ambiguous as to be almost meaning-less. Daguerre (1787–1851) was a brilliant painter for the stage, and invented the hugely successful Diorama before collaborating with Nicéphore Niepce (and with Isadore, his son, after Niepce’s death in 1833) to improve and perfect Niepce’s photographic invention, the rights for which were bought by the French Government in 1839. Daguerre retired shortly afterwards. He had been responsible for some dramatic scenic effects during the 1820s and 1830s at several Paris theatres, most notably at the Opéra. But no connection with anyone with the initials RS could be found, or indeed any connection with a spell in prison, or with a close collaborator, other than Niepce and perhaps a little with Fox Talbot in England, with whom he was in fairly close touch. Talbot’s own photographic process was virtually contemporaneous with the development of the Daguerreotype, but based on a different technology. The Daguerreotype became all the rage, and dominated the reproductive process at least up to the time of the 1851 Exhibition, having become a major craze in the USA. Some of Daguerre’s impressive photographs include moonlight scenes.Scole Report Plate 12b

Blogger Reference Link

Tuesday, 28 May 2013

Andrija Puharich

A long time ago I remember reading Puharichs interesting book Beyond Telepathy, a copy of which I took from the British Society for Psychical Research. At the time, I found his theoretical ideas about the MCC, or Mobile Center of Conciousness of great interest.
There is also an interesting link to an official website on Andrija Puharich
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Andrija Puharich
BornFebruary 19, 1918
Chicago, Illinois
DiedJanuary 3, 1995
Dobson, North Carolina
Residence"Devotion" (R. J. Reynolds Family Estate)
OccupationInventor, Scientist, Physician
Andrija Puharich, MD - (born Karel Puharić, February 19, 1918 - January 3, 1995) was a medical and parapsychological researcher, medical inventor and author, who is perhaps best known as the person who brought Israeli Uri Geller and Dutch-born Peter Hurkos (1911-1988) to the United States for scientific investigation.



Biography [edit]

Born in Chicago, Illinois, he was the son of poor Yugoslav immigrants. His father had entered the U. S. in 1912 as a stowaway. At home Karel's parents always called him "Andrija," which apparently wasn't his name at birth but just his parents' nickname for him. When Karel, as a young boy, started attending school, his parents enrolled him under the name "Henry Karl Puharich," feeling he would be more easily accepted with that name than with the foreign-sounding name "Karel Puharić."[1] Thereafter he often signed his name as "Henry Karl Puharich." He didn't start using his nickname "Andrija" as his first name until sometime in the later part of his life.
In 1947, Puharich graduated from the Northwestern University School of Medicine. His residency was completed at Permanente Hospital in California, where he specialized in Internal Medicine. Puharich was a U.S. Army officer in the early 1950s. During that time, he was in and out of Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories and Camp Detrick, meeting with various high-ranking officers and officials, primarily from the Pentagon, CIA, and Naval Intelligence.[2] The Edgewood Arsenal is currently officially called the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Of his many books, Puharich wrote a supportive biography of Uri Geller, a paranormal case he investigated with the help of Itzhak Bentov, among others. Before that he investigated favorably the Brazilian psychic surgeon Zé Arigó. He met the Dutch psychic Peter Hurkos and brought him to the United States to participate in scientific experiments in parapsychology. He also investigated Mexican psychic surgeon Pachita. He encouraged a rational assessment of people with paranormal faculties and applied scientific methods to investigations of what were their startling and often unpredictable and elusive skills or abilities. One of his books is The Sacred Mushroom, Key to the Door of Eternity, in which he describes his work with psychics, and his own skepticism of them, in some detail.
Two of the most famous of Puharich's over 50 patents were devices that assist hearing - the "Means For Aiding Hearing" U.S. Patent 2,995,633 and "Method And Apparatus For Improving Neural Performance In Human Subjects By Electrotherapy" U.S. Patent 3,563,246". He was also granted a U.S. Patent 4,394,230 in 1983 for a "Method and Apparatus for Splitting Water Molecules." His research included studying the influence of extremely low frequency ELF electromagnetic wave emissions on the mind, and he invented several devices allegedly blocking or converting ELF waves to prevent harm.
Dr Andrija Puharich played himself on Perry Mason, in the episode The Case of the Meddling Medium, in 1961.

Personal life [edit]

While working in Mexico, Puharich married and later divorced the future Baltimore outsider art promoter Rebecca Alban Hoffberger.

References [edit]

  1. ^ - H. G. M. Hermans, Memories of a Maverick (Published by Pi, 3140 AA Maassluis, P. O. Box 11, The Netherlands), Chapter 2 ("Early Life and Adolescent")
  2. ^ A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA'S Secret Cold War Experiments by H.P.Albarelli Jr. - pg 53 First Edition 2009 (book)

Bibliography [edit]

  • Effects of Tesla's Life and Electrical Inventions (Essay on Nikola Tesla)
  • The Sacred Mushroom early work of psycho-ethno-botany, connected religion to psychoactive fungi
  • Beyond Telepathy, intro by Ira Einhorn
  • Uri: A Journal of the Mystery of Uri Geller. Anchor Press / Doubleday (1974) ISBN 0-385-00992-5
  • The Iceland Papers, Editor
  • Magnetic Model of Matter.
  • ELF Magnetic Model Of Matter And Mind
  • Origin Of Life
  • Art Of Healing
  • Tesla's Magnifying Transmitter

Patents [edit]

These are but a few of Puharich's patents:
Google Patent Search For Puharich

External links [edit]

Surfing the E.L.F. Waves with Andrija Puhuarich

(appeared in Reality Hackers Magazine 1988)

by Lawrence Gerald

Andrija Puharich was one of the world's leading innovotive scientists. {He passed away in 1995.} His primary work had been to bridge parapsychology and medicine. An experimental researcher and physician, he had numerous patents granted in medicine, electronics, with some being used for the treatment of hearing loss.
Over twenty years ego, while on the faculty of N.Y.U., Puharich began studying the Brazilian heaIer, Arigo. He is featured in a book called "Arigo: Surgeon of the Rusty Knife" by John G. Fuller. He became more controversial in orthodox circles when he described his uncanny experiences with Uri Ge1ler in his 1974 best-se11ing book," Uri." His books, "The Sacred Mushroom" and "Beyond Telepathy" chronicIed some of the work at his research center in Maine where he collaborated with Bucky Fuller, Aldous Huxley, Harry Stone and Peter Hurkos.
Seeing that humanity faced a critical surviva1 test - neutralizing AIDS --Puharich focused his energies on this challenge.toward the end of his life. It was during a 1987 N. Y. C. Psycho-tronics Conference on Disease ond Biological Warfare Control that Puharich spoke to his colleagues on the subject of Extremely Low Frequency (E.L.F.) emissions. He believes that the re1ationship between electromagnetic force fields and healing could 1ead to novel scientific breakthroughs. Afterwards, Reality Hackers, Lawrence Gerald talked with Puharich about his scientific work, and was treated to some candid and revealing remarks about the politics in the world of parapsychology.
Andrija Puharich: An incredible but absolutely truescene took place when Uri Geller was working on onefloor at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). They had Geller bending metal, teleporting things,demonstrating incidents of telepathy and clairvoyance-these things were happening all of the time. Well, unbeknownst to us at the time, there was another lab upstairs for ARPA-a computer network system. Somebody put two and two together and said: "Hey, there's a crazy kid downstairs who is bending metal and levitating things." So they cross-correlated and discovered that when Uri did something the computers would go wacko: program printouts would pop out - sometimes partly erased --- the power supply would go out on them and so on. "Somebody can affect the computer!" Panic ensued. A squad of colonels came out from Washington to sniff around and watch Uri do his thing. They came to me and said, "You know, our whole defense system is on computers and magnetic tapecards. Can this guy wipe them out? Would you cooperate?" So we took Geller to Bell Labs and to the Livermore Radiation Lab and they put together an elaborate set-up for magnetic shielding. They learned that he could wipe out anything on computer tape. They said to me, "This guy could start World War 3!"
The SRI incident was witnessed by a lot of very credible people. Captain Edgar Mitchell, the APOLLO astronaut who walked on the moon, was the overseer of the project. Russell Targ and Hal Puthoff conducted the experiments. Also participating on the team were John Hastead of Berbeck College in England; David Bohm, the great theoretician of Quantum physics, andNobel Laureate Brian Josephson. There were about 40 people on the team.
Later the Secret Service came to me and asked if Geller could activate the HotLine between Moscow and Washington. I said, "I think he could but I don't think he cares to. You'd have to pay him to do so." They said they would then consider him a "Higher Intelligence."
Reality Hackers: Or Hired Intelligence!
Yeah! By then I'd taken Uri to England, Norway, Europe. Hundreds of kids started to bend metal as a result of seeing him, either on tv or in person. So I told these Government agents that there's a lion running right through all their countries. Any kid on a caper could blow up the whole thing. It's too late! So I think they gave up the idea of killing Geller. It didn't seem practical anymore.
The next idea was to discredit Geller through a disinformation campaign developed by Ray Hyman and "Amazing" Randi. These turkeys concocted a smokescreen around Geller so that no one would take him seriously.
Do you know about Randi? Randi works for the Disinformation Department in the Department of Defense-high level research projects. He startedworking there in 1973. He makes things difficult forlegitimate psychic researchers. We can never get Randi to debate publicly. Peter Hurkos, the psychic, and myself, have challenged him and he won't deal with us. Yet the average Joe would say "Geller's a fake. Randi proved it." So they've done a good job-the Disinformation Squad. But it's all horseshit, you know.
Sounds like a Max Headroom plot. What became of SRI?
It became a CIA research center- even to this day. I know this because I trained many of the psychics involved in the psychic warfare operation. I could tell you names, places, all that garbage. There are smokescreens deliberately set up to discredit parapsychology research or keep what they know concealed.
When was the last time you spoke with Geller? When I was in London (July '87). Uri did get prosperous enough that he's able to live around the world. A recent article reported that he made forty million dollars being in show business.
Not bad for an Extra-Terrestrial. What about your own career? You've achieved a certain amount of credibility in the straight scientific community, considering what you're doing.
Well, I've done my share of straight work. But you haven't been afraid to risk your reputation doing parapyschology. Some people worry about it. Your reputation is like a woman's hymen. Once you've lost it, it's gone forever. Right?
And a certain freedom opens up. If your reputation's at issue, it may mean that you're on to something. When you're a pioneer, you have to take risks. The risks never bothered me. The fun overcomes all of that. I'll never regret the time I spent in Brazil studying Arigo and bringing his amazing abilities to the attention of the world. It was rough-being an M.D.and teaching at N.Y.U. The dean was always calling me up, "What.the hell ya doing?! " But they couldn't get me off the research project with Arigo. The county medical society called me in and I told them, "It's all real." I arranged for them to have a viewing of some film of Arigo in action. And they loved it!
When did you first meet Arigo?
Back in '61. I repeatedly took teams of doctors with me to study him up 'til about 1968. When you're there watching him operate, you can't believe it's real. It shocks every sensibility. A guy walks up to him and Arigo says, "You've got a cancer near the pancreas. Pull up your shirt. Drop your pants." He pulls out a knife, opens it up, cuts open the intestine and glues the two ends together and somehow-just like that-the person is healed! There would be a couple hundred people lined up around his house waiting to be next. The average treatment was about two minutes. All this was done without anaesthesia or antisepsis.
What's really amazing is he'd do all of this without insurance!
(laughter!) It made medical practice look foolish. He made us look like idiots. We know nothing and he knew everything.
So the book "Arigo, Surgeon of the Rusty Knife," by John Fuller, was the only well-publicized information that came out about this work. Did you try and bring him to the U.S.?
I tried, but it was impossible because of the medical pressure. When you're in this field, you have special import immigration status for people with exceptional ability. That's how I was able to bring in Peter Hurkos and Uri. But AMA pressure was too great. It was easier to go down to Brazil to the culture he was working in.
You've said that all the truly great psychics are working for the same intelligence.
It's the only thing that's gonna save us. These psychics are under the influence of a super high power. Peter Hurkos is {was} a top psychic for the U.S. Government. If there's a radar signature coming over the North Pole that looks like a missile, you'd think they'd call up the technical experts. No, they call up Peter. In ten seconds, he can tell if it's a dud or if it's real, and where it's going. That's a heavy responsibility.
With all of your hobnobbing with psychics, have you ever wanted to go gambling with them?
Just once, many years ago. I went to Las Vegas with a business partner. There were four of us, two werepsychic. We were looking to break the odds. We had about $20 to play with and our aim was to use our psychokinetic ability. There was one guy to pick out the best table, another to place the bet, and one to roll the dice. After three hours we had twenty thousand. That was my only experiment with that.
You have finished a new book, "The Magnetic Model of Matter." You also have some unique inventions , such as the Farady Cage, hearing aids, and the ideascope.(a special strobe light). All these can be seen as practical applications of your written work. Could you say something about how the Faraday Cage works?
When your're inside it, a psychic, for example, has their performance inccreased by a thousand fold. A Farady cage shields you from the electromagnetic radio waves, allowing only extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic waves to get through. I don't think there's a psychic warfare research lab that doesn't make use of them today.
Do you have the patent on it?
No. I applied for one but didn't receive it. I had a lawsuit with the Department of Commerce that went on for three years. A famous lawsuit. The judge ruled that the invention couldn't work because E.S.P. doesn't exist. It was a funny case.
What is the Ideascope?
It's an ordinary strobe light, but very high-powered.You look into this strobe light, a single point source, and you adjust the frequency of the strobe to your own alpha -waves. When that happens, instead of seeing one point, you suddenly see two. It splits. What it does is separate the two halves of the brain functionally. And, what you then see is two circles, one on each point. When you see two circles move together, they form a vesica-pisces. In other words, a fish-like figure with a dark and light space. We've tried this out on sucessful businessmen who never heard of E.S.P., tested them, and they scored greatly!
After five or ten experiences, you're ready for the next stage which involves a video tape with instructions that help you develop concentration levels that lead to out of body experiences at will.
You have one of the most famous published reports of teleportation on record. Uri was walking down a steet in Manhatten and the next thing he knew he ended up 36 miles north at your old home in Ossining, N.Y.
He was with a woman named Maria Janis (she's Gary Cooper's daughter). He left the apartment they were in to go jogging. Within two minutes of leaving 68th and Park, he somehow landed in Ossining which is 36 miles away. I was home alone. I heard this huge crash and thought it was an earthquake. I couldn't find the source of it at first, and then I heard this bleak voice, "Andrija! Andrija! " There he was crumpled up on the floor. He was intact and wasn't hurt at all. I've had a lot of that kind of stuff with Uri.
He's not in control of any of that, is he?

He won't admit it, but I can tell you after researching him for years that he's E.T." Like The Man who Fell to Earth", he just wants to be a regular person.
Wouldn't it be better if he was more in control of the situation?
Maybe it would be for you. He doesn't care. He's bored by the whole thing. I think he's waiting to get off the planet. Everyone thinks of him as a show business personality but his chief work for a long time was being in charge of psychic warfare operations for theIsraeli Army. No matter where he works in the world, he basically works for them.
I've heard that in the '73 Egyptian lsraeli war, he knocked out Egypt's radar.
I was there.
Wasn't that classified information which somehow got leaked out?
Well, now it's coming out. I asked him if I could talk about it, and he said, "Yeah, I don't care anymore."
Sixteen years of high security and he's had it!
When was the last time you saw a UFO ?
A real UFO? (says this with an amused smile and a twinkle in his eye.) A few months ago. What they do is appear when I'm in danger. They give me a warning and take care of these CIA turkeys and such. But I'm not really interested in UFOs per se, or Uri, or metal bending. They are all just pointers on how the mind works. Nobody in the world ever heard of metal-bending until I started working with Uri. It took me about 10 years until I was able to measure the energy coming out of Uri's hands- which is 7 Hz instead of the usual eight. Now we know more about the nature of electron flow which, in matter, causes metal to bend. This is what I am most interested in right now.
What do you think about superconductivity?
Very competitive research. It's gonna change all of life. I've got a research project in this area as well. All the magnetic energy, the magnetism inside any matter can be expelled, which is probably the way UFOs work. It requires no energy once you get it going.
l notice you are wearing a watch that says "Teslar" on it. Where did you get that?
I have a company called E.L.F.(Extremely Low Frequency) Cocoon Corp. I designed this very sensitive piece of equipment. It gives off an 8 Hz frequency. The watch was a ten-year project. I began to understand that there is a frequency vibration emitted by all these healers. So I developed some unique equipment that could measure this. When healers lay their hands, or energy, on someone, they put out exactly 8 Hz magnetic frequency-the same vibration emmited by crystals. This is universal.
I was concerned about the E.L.F. warfare that the Russians had started using in 1976. They're bombarding everything and everybody. E.L.F. can be real bad for you as it can affect DNA at the right vibration. I spent three years trying to convince the American, British, and Canadian Intelligence communities that the Soviet E.L.F. signal does, indeed, affect the DNA.
At first they thought I was smoking some weird stuff but eventually they understood and acknowledged my ideas. So I developed something that would protect the individual from the E.L.F.-The Teslar. I named it after Nicola Tesla, whom I consider one of my most important teachers. The watch also dramatically lowers high blood pressure and prevents jet lag if you fly with it on.
I have been battling with the C.I.A. for the past two years because they have tried everything to suppress this invention. They don't want anyone to believe that E.L.F. exists and has adverse affects. Of course, now they're using it in covert warfare with the U.S.S.R.
You must have a great dossier! Whenever these agents are having a boring week they must say, "Let's see what Puharich is up to, get his file and see how we can slow him down."
(disguised voice) "He's a prognosticator. We'll get on his trail and follow him." Man's gotta do what he gotta do.
And like they say, "When the going gets tough, the weird turn pro!"
Peter Hurkos was a professional psychic who helped police departments all over the country in catching criminals and locating missing persons . He was a popular psychic for the stars in Hollywood between the
60's and 1980's. In 1941 while working as a painter in Holland, Hurkos became psychic after he fell from a ladder and suffered a brain injury. Andrija Puharich discovered him in 1956 and brought him over to the U.S. to do pyschic experiments. He died in 1991 at the age of 77. There is a book about him called "The Amazing World of Peter Hurkos."
For more on Puharich:
Uri GELLER's website:
The Psychedelic Shakespeare Solution

Blogger Reference Link


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Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby something new is created which has some kind of subjective value (such as an idea, a joke, a literary work, a painting or musical composition, a solution, an invention etc.). It is also the qualitative impetus behind any given act of creation, and it is generally perceived to be associated with intelligence and cognition.
The range of scholarly interest in creativity includes a multitude of definitions and approaches involving several disciplines; psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), technology, theology, sociology, linguistics, business studies, and economics, taking in the relationship between creativity and general intelligence, mental and neurological processes associated with creativity, the relationships between personality type and creative ability and between creativity and mental health, the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of learning and teaching processes.



Definition [edit]

In a summary of scientific research into creativity Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products" (Mumford, 2003, p. 110).[1] Creativity can also be defined "as the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile" or "characterized by originality and expressiveness and imaginative".[2] What is produced can come in many forms and is not specifically singled out in a subject or area. Authors have diverged dramatically in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities: Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature.[3]

Aspects of creativity [edit]

Theories of creativity (particularly investigation of why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" - process, product, person and place.[4] A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford), or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity (psychometrics, see below) and in creative ideas framed as successful memes.[5] The psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it also involves the ability to produce more.[6] A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behavior and so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources and the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility.[6]
An article by R.J. Sternberg in the Creativity Research Journal reviewed the "investment" theory of creativity as well as the "propulsion" theory of creative contribution, suggesting that there are eight types of creative contribution; replication - confirming that the given field is in the correct place - redefinition - the attempt to redefine where the field is and how it is viewed - forward incrementation - a creative contribution that moves the field forward in the direction in which it is already moving - advance forward movement - which advances the field past the point where others are ready for it to go - redirection - which moves the field in a new, different direction - redirection from a point in the past - which moves the field back to a previous point to advance in a different direction - starting over/ re-initiation - moving the field to a different starting point - and integration - combining two or more diverse ways of thinking about the field into a single way of thinking.[7]

Historical importance [edit]

James C. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions and insights"), little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression), Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field). This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity. It also, the authors argued, made a useful framework for analysing creative processes in individuals.[8]
The contrast of terms "Big C" and "Little c" has been widely used. Kozbelt, Beghetto and Runco use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity [4] Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal).[9]
Robinson[10] and Anna Craft[11] have focussed on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education. Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.[11] and cites Ken Robinson as referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi[12] has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions. Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.[13]

Etymology [edit]

The lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō "to create, make": its derivational suffixes also come from Latin. The word "create" appeared in English as early as the 14th century, notably in Chaucer, to indicate divine creation[14] (in The Parson's Tale[15]). However, its modern meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment.[14]

History of the concept [edit]

Greek philosophers like Plato rejected the concept of creativity, preferring to see art as a form of discovery. Asked in The Republic, "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?", Plato answers, "Certainly not, he merely imitates."[16]

Ancient views [edit]

Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece,[16] Ancient China, and Ancient India,[17] lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation. The ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein" ("to make"), which only applied to poiesis (poetry) and to the poietes (poet, or "maker") who made it. Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. Asked in The Republic,[18] "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?", he answers, "Certainly not, he merely imitates."[16]
It is commonly argued that the notion of "creativity" originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration.[14] According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin, "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis."[19] However, this is not creativity in the modern sense, which did not arise until the Renaissance. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God; humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work.[20] A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture, for instance, Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods.[21] Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" (Greek) or "genius" (Latin), linked to the sacred or the divine. However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, and the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance.[22] It was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen, not as a conduit for the divine, but from the abilities of "great men".[22]

The Enlightenment and after [edit]

The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West probably until the Renaissance and even later.[20] The development of the modern concept of creativity begins in the Renaissance, when creation began to be perceived as having originated from the abilities of the individual, and not God. However, this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment.[22] By the 18th century and the Age of Enlightenment, mention of creativity (notably in art theory), linked with the concept of imagination, became more frequent.[23] In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition;[14] William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.[21]
As a direct and independent topic of study, creativity effectively received no attention until the 19th century.[21] Runco and Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper study began seriously to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in individual differences inspired by the arrival of Darwinism. In particular they refer to the work of Francis Galton, who through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence, with creativity taken as an aspect of genius.[14]
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, leading mathematicians and scientists such as Hermann von Helmholtz (1896) and Henri Poincaré (1908) began to reflect on and publicly discuss their creative processes.

Twentieth century to the present day [edit]

The insights of Poincaré and von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas[24] and Max Wertheimer. In his work Art of Thought, published in 1926, Wallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages:
(i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),
(ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening),
(iii) intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way),
(iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness); and
(v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).
Wallas' model is often treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage.
Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. Simonton[25] provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity.
In 1927, Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, later published as Process and Reality.[26] He is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme: "Whitehead actually coined the term – our term, still the preferred currency of exchange among literature, science, and the arts. . . a term that quickly became so popular, so omnipresent, that its invention within living memory, and by Alfred North Whitehead of all people, quickly became occluded".[27]
The formal psychometric measurement of creativity, from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature, is usually considered to have begun with J. P. Guilford's 1950 address to the American Psychological Association, which helped popularize the topic[28] and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity. (It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as 1927 with the work of H. L. Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination,[29] but it did not have the same impact.) Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity(as measured) as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ-type intelligence, into which it had previously been subsumed. Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ, the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down.[4]

Creative process [edit]

There has been much empirical study in psychology and cognitive science of the processes through which creativity occurs.

Incubation [edit]

Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight.[30] There has been some empirical research looking at whether, as the concept of "incubation" in Wallas' model implies, a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. Ward[31] lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem.[32] This work disputes the earlier hypothesis that creative solutions to problems arise mysteriously from the unconscious mind while the conscious mind is occupied on other tasks.[33]

Convergent and divergent thinking [edit]

J. P. Guilford[34] drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production (commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking). Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem. Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in psychology literature. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible thinking or fluid intelligence, which are roughly similar to (but not synonymous with) creativity.[citation needed]

Creative Cognition Approach [edit]

In 1992, Finke et al. proposed the "Geneplore" model, in which creativity takes place in two phases: a generative phase, where an individual constructs mental representations called preinventive structures, and an exploratory phase where those structures are used to come up with creative ideas. Some evidence shows that when people use their imagination to develop new ideas, those ideas are heavily structured in predictable ways by the properties of existing categories and concepts.[35] Weisberg[36] argued, by contrast, that creativity only involves ordinary cognitive processes yielding extraordinary results.

The Explicit-Implicit Interaction (EII) theory [edit]

Helie and Sun[37] recently proposed a unified framework for understanding creativity in problem solving, namely the Explicit-Implicit Interaction (EII) theory of creativity. This new theory constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The EII theory relies mainly on five basic principles, namely 1) The co-existence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge; 2) The simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks; 3) The redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge; 4) The integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing; and 5) The iterative (and possibly bidirectional) processing. A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and used to simulate relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related phenomena.

Conceptual blending [edit]

In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation—that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference.[38] This idea was later developed into conceptual blending. In the '90s, various approaches in cognitive science that dealt with metaphor, analogy and structure mapping have been converging, and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending.

Honing Theory [edit]

Honing theory posits that creativity arises due to the self-organizing, self-mending nature of a worldview, and that it is by way of the creative process the individual hones (and re-hones) an integrated worldview. Honing theory places equal emphasis on the externally visible creative outcome and the internal cognitive restructuring brought about by the creative process. Indeed one factor that distinguishes it from other theories of creativity is that it focuses on not just restructuring as it pertains to the conception of the task, but as it pertains to the worldview as a whole. When faced with a creatively demanding task, there is an interaction between the conception of the task and the worldview. The conception of the task changes through interaction with the worldview, and the worldview changes through interaction with the task. This interaction is reiterated until the task is complete, at which point not only is the task conceived of differently, but the worldview is subtly or drastically transformed. Thus another distinguishing feature of honing theory is that the creative process reflects the natural tendency of a worldview to attempt to resolve dissonance and seek internal consistency amongst its components, whether they be ideas, attitudes, or bits of knowledge; it mends itself as does a body when it has been injured.
Yet another central, distinguishing feature of honing theory is the notion of a potentiality state.[39] Honing theory posits that creative thought proceeds not by searching through and randomly ‘mutating’ predefined possibilities, but by drawing upon associations that exist due to overlap in the distributed neural cell assemblies that participate in the encoding of experiences in memory. Midway through the creative process one may have made associations between the current task and previous experiences, but not yet disambiguated which aspects of those previous experiences are relevant to the current task. Thus the creative idea may feel ‘half-baked’. It is at that point that it can be said to be in a potentiality state, because how it will actualize depends on the different internally or externally generated contexts it interacts with.
Honing theory can account for many phenomena that are not readily explained by other theories of creativity. For example, creativity was commonly thought to be fostered by a supportive, nurturing, trustworthy environment conducive to self-actualization. However, research shows that creativity is actually associated with childhood adversity, which would stimulate honing. Honing theory also makes several predictions that differ from what would be predicted by other theories. For example, empirical support has been obtained using analogy problem solving experiments for the proposal that midway through the creative process one's mind is in a potentiality state. Other experiments show that different works by the same creator exhibit a recognizable style or 'voice', and that this same recognizable quality even comes through in different creative outlets. This is not predicted by theories of creativity that emphasize chance processes or the accumulation of expertise, but it is predicted by honing theory, according to which personal style reflects the creator's uniquely structured worldview. This theory has been developed by Liane Gabora.

Creativity and everyday imaginative thought [edit]

In everyday thought, people often spontaneously imagine alternatives to reality when they think "if only...".[40] Their counterfactual thinking is viewed as an example of everyday creative processes.[41] It has been proposed that the creation of counterfactual alternatives to reality depends on similar cognitive processes to rational thought.[42]

Measuring creativity [edit]

Creativity quotient [edit]

Several attempts have been made to develop a creativity quotient of an individual similar to the intelligence quotient (IQ), however these have been unsuccessful.[43]
In Malcolm Gladwell's 2008 book Outliers: The Story of Success,[44] there is mentioning of a "divergence test". As opposed to "convergence tests", where a test taker is asked to sort through a list of possibilities and converge on the right answer, a divergence test requires one to use imagination and take one's mind in as many different directions as possible. "With a divergence test, obviously there isn't a single right answer. What the test giver is looking for are the number and uniqueness of your responses. And what the test is measuring isn't analytical intelligence but something profoundly different -- something much closer to creativity. Divergence tests are every bit as challenging as convergence tests."

Psychometric approach [edit]

J. P. Guilford's group,[34] which pioneered the modern psychometric study of creativity, constructed several tests to measure creativity in 1967:
  • Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles.
  • Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness.
  • Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness.
  • Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.
  • Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words (e.g. Hand _____ Call)
  • Remote Consequences, where participants are asked to generate a list of consequences of unexpected events (e.g. loss of gravity)
Building on Guilford's work, Torrance[45] developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966.[46] They involved simple tests of divergent thinking and other problem-solving skills, which were scored on:
  • Fluency – The total number of interpretable, meaningful and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.
  • Originality – The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects.
  • Elaboration – The amount of detail in the responses.
The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire, a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output.[47]
Such tests, sometimes called Divergent Thinking (DT) tests have been both supported[48] and criticized.[49]

Social-personality approach [edit]

Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity. In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals.[28] A meta-analysis by Gregory Feist showed that creative people tend to be "more open to new experiences, less conventional and less conscientious, more self-confident, self-accepting, driven, ambitious, dominant, hostile,and impulsive." Openness, conscientiousness, self-acceptance, hostility and impulsivity had the strongest effects of the traits listed.[50] Within the framework of the Big Five model of personality some consistent traits have emerged.[51] Openness to experience has been shown to be consistently related to a whole host of different assessments of creativity.[52] Among the other Big Five traits, research has demonstrated subtle differences between different domains of creativity. Compared to non-artists, artists tend to have higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness, while scientists are more open to experience, conscientious, and higher in the confidence-dominance facets of extraversion compared to non-scientists.[50]

Other approaches to measurement [edit]

Howard Gruber insisted on a case-study approach that expresses the existential and unique quality of the creator. Creativity to Gruber was the product of purposeful work and this work could be described only as a confluence of forces in the specifics of the case.

Declining US creativity? [edit]

Creativity as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking increased until 1990 in the United States, an effect similar to the Flynn effect. Thereafter scores have been declining. Possible causes include increased time spent watching TV, increased time spent playing computer games, or lacking nurturing of creativity in schools.[citation needed] There may also be a mistaken assumption that encouraging creativity in schools necessarily involve the arts when it also can be encouraged in other subjects.[53]
A growing global educational reform movement commonly known as 21st Century Learning aims to promote creativity across the curriculum. In general, it advocates teaching lifelong skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration and communication for core academic subjects including Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM), as well as the arts. Insofar as the movement promotes a new focus on teaching/learning creativity and innovation skills through activities that promote higher order thinking skills, it also requires the development of additional metrics to score originality and innovation, as well as technical correctness. Odyssey of the Mind is a non-profit educational program that provides challenging divergent problems to foster original thinking across the curriculum, and has effectively promoted creativity education world-wide since the 1970s.[54] Odyssey of the Mind World Finals[55] is the pinnacle international team-based creative problem-solving competition, and an annual festival to celebrate creativity education. Odyssey of the Mind helps educators easily implement 21st Century Learning Skills[56] at every learning level, and has been sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to encourage creativity education in the US.[57]

Creativity and intelligence [edit]

There has been debate in the psychological literature about whether intelligence (as measured by IQ) and creativity are part of the same process (the conjoint hypothesis) or represent distinct mental processes (the disjoint hypothesis). Evidence from attempts to look at correlations between intelligence and creativity from the 1950s onwards, by authors such as Barron, Guilford or Wallach and Kogan, regularly suggested that correlations between these concepts were low enough to justify treating them as distinct concepts.[51]
Some researchers believe that creativity is the outcome of the same cognitive processes as intelligence, and is only judged as creativity in terms of its consequences, i.e. when the outcome of cognitive processes happens to produce something novel, a view which Perkins has termed the "nothing special" hypothesis.[58]
An often cited model is what has come to be known as "the threshold hypothesis," proposed by Ellis Paul Torrance, which holds that a high degree of intelligence appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for high creativity.[34] That is, while there is a positive correlation between creativity and intelligence, this correlation disappears for IQs above a threshold of around 120. Such a model has found acceptance by many researchers, although it has not gone unchallenged.[59] A study in 1962 by Getzels and Jackson among high school students concluded that high IQ and high creativity tend to be mutually exclusive with a majority of the highest scoring students being either highly creative or highly intelligent, but not both. While this explains the threshold, the exact interaction between creativity and IQ remains unexplained.[60] A 2005 meta-Analysis found only small correlations between IQ and creativity tests and did not support the threshold theory.[61]
An alternative perspective, Renzulli's three-rings hypothesis, sees giftedness as based on both intelligence and creativity.
Another view is that creativity may be particularly related to fluid intelligence.[62]

Neurobiology of creativity [edit]

The neurobiology of creativity has been addressed[63] in the article "Creative Innovation: Possible Brain Mechanisms." The authors write that "creative innovation might require coactivation and communication between regions of the brain that ordinarily are not strongly connected." Highly creative people who excel at creative innovation tend to differ from others in three ways:
Thus, the frontal lobe appears to be the part of the cortex that is most important for creativity.
This article also explored the links between creativity and sleep, mood and addiction disorders, and depression.
In 2005, Alice Flaherty presented a three-factor model of the creative drive. Drawing from evidence in brain imaging, drug studies and lesion analysis, she described the creative drive as resulting from an interaction of the frontal lobes, the temporal lobes, and dopamine from the limbic system. The frontal lobes can be seen as responsible for idea generation, and the temporal lobes for idea editing and evaluation. Abnormalities in the frontal lobe (such as depression or anxiety) generally decrease creativity, while abnormalities in the temporal lobe often increase creativity. High activity in the temporal lobe typically inhibits activity in the frontal lobe, and vice versa. High dopamine levels increase general arousal and goal directed behaviors and reduce latent inhibition, and all three effects increase the drive to generate ideas.[64]

Working memory and the cerebellum [edit]

Vandervert[65] described how the brain's frontal lobes and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Vandervert's explanation rests on considerable evidence that all processes of working memory (responsible for processing all thought[66]) are adaptively modeled for increased efficiency by the cerebellum.[67] The cerebellum (consisting of 100 billion neurons, which is more than the entirety of the rest of the brain[68]) is also widely known to adaptively model all bodily movement for efficiency. The cerebellum's adaptive models of working memory processing are then fed back to especially frontal lobe working memory control processes[69] where creative and innovative thoughts arise.[70] (Apparently, creative insight or the "aha" experience is then triggered in the temporal lobe.[71])
According to Vandervert, the details of creative adaptation begin in "forward" cerebellar models which are anticipatory/exploratory controls for movement and thought. These cerebellar processing and control architectures have been termed Hierarchical Modular Selection and Identification for Control (HMOSAIC).[72] New, hierarchically arranged levels of the cerebellar control architecture (HMOSAIC) develop as mental mulling in working memory is extended over time. These new levels of the control architecture are fed forward to the frontal lobes. Since the cerebellum adaptively models all movement and all levels of thought and emotion,[73] Vandervert's approach helps explain creativity and innovation in sports, art, music, the design of video games, technology, mathematics, the child prodigy, and thought in general.
Essentially, Vandervert has argued that when a person is confronted with a challenging new situation, visual-spatial working memory and speech-related working memory are decomposed and re-composed (fractionated) by the cerebellum and then blended in the cerebral cortex in an attempt to deal with the new situation. With repeated attempts to deal with challenging situations, the cerebro-cerebellar blending process continues to optimize the efficiency of how working memory deals with the situation or problem.[74] Most recently, he has argued that this is the same process (only involving visual-spatial working memory and pre-language vocalization) that led to the evolution of language in humans.[75] Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers have pointed out that this blending process, because it continuously optimizes efficiencies, constantly improves prototyping attempts toward the invention or innovation of new ideas, music, art, or technology.[76] Prototyping, they argue, not only produces new products, it trains the cerebro-cerebellar pathways involved to become more efficient at prototyping itself. Further, Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers believe that this repetitive "mental prototyping" or mental rehearsal involving the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex explains the success of the self-driven, individualized patterning of repetitions initiated by the teaching methods of the Khan Academy.

REM sleep [edit]

Creativity involves the forming of associative elements into new combinations that are useful or meet some requirement. Sleep aids this process.[77] REM rather than NREM sleep appears to be responsible.[78][79] This has been suggested to be due to changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation that occurs during REM sleep.[78] During this period of sleep, high levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus suppress feedback from the hippocampus to the neocortex, and lower levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the neocortex encourage the spread of associational activity within neocortical areas without control from the hippocampus.[80] This is in contrast to waking consciousness, where higher levels of norepinephrine and acetylcholine inhibit recurrent connections in the neocortex. It is proposed that REM sleep adds creativity by allowing "neocortical structures to reorganize associative hierarchies, in which information from the hippocampus would be reinterpreted in relation to previous semantic representations or nodes."[78]

Creativity and affect [edit]

Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence. As noted in voting behavior the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question. This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making.[81]

Creativity and positive affect relations [edit]

According to Alice Isen, positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity:
  1. Positive affect makes additional cognitive material available for processing, increasing the number of cognitive elements available for association;
  2. Positive affect leads to defocused attention and a more complex cognitive context, increasing the breadth of those elements that are treated as relevant to the problem;
  3. Positive affect increases cognitive flexibility, increasing the probability that diverse cognitive elements will in fact become associated. Together, these processes lead positive affect to have a positive influence on creativity.
Barbara Fredrickson in her broaden-and-build model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person's available repertoire of cognitions and actions, thus enhancing creativity.
According to these researchers, positive emotions increase the number of cognitive elements available for association (attention scope) and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem (cognitive scope).
Various meta-analyses, such as Baas et al. (2008) of 66 studies about creativity and affect support the link between creativity and positive affect[82][83]

Creativity and negative affect relations [edit]

On the other hand, some theorists have suggested that negative affect leads to greater creativity. A cornerstone of this perspective is empirical evidence of a relationship between affective illness and creativity. In a study of 1,005 prominent 20th century individuals from over 45 different professions, the University of Kentucky's Arnold Ludwig found a slight but significant correlation between depression and level of creative achievement. In addition, several systematic studies of highly creative individuals and their relatives have uncovered a higher incidence of affective disorders (primarily bipolar disorder and depression) than that found in the general population.

Creativity and affect at work [edit]

Three patterns may exist between affect and creativity at work: positive (or negative) mood, or change in mood, predictably precedes creativity; creativity predictably precedes mood; and whether affect and creativity occur simultaneously.
It was found that not only might affect precede creativity, but creative outcomes might provoke affect as well. At its simplest level, the experience of creativity is itself a work event, and like other events in the organizational context, it could evoke emotion. Qualitative research and anecdotal accounts of creative achievement in the arts and sciences suggest that creative insight is often followed by feelings of elation. For example, Albert Einstein called his 1907 general theory of relativity "the happiest thought of my life." Empirical evidence on this matter is still very tentative.
In contrast to the possible incubation effects of affective state on subsequent creativity, the affective consequences of creativity are likely to be more direct and immediate. In general, affective events provoke immediate and relatively fleeting emotional reactions. Thus, if creative performance at work is an affective event for the individual doing the creative work, such an effect would likely be evident only in same-day data.
Another longitudinal research found several insights regarding the relations between creativity and emotion at work. Firstly, evidence shows a positive correlation between positive affect and creativity. The more positive a person's affect on a given day, the more creative thinking they evidenced that day and the next day—even controlling for that next day's mood. There was even some evidence of an effect two days later.
In addition, the researchers found no evidence that people were more creative when they experienced both positive and negative affect on the same day. The weight of evidence supports a purely linear form of the affect-creativity relationship, at least over the range of affect and creativity covered in our study: the more positive a person's affect, the higher their creativity in a work setting.
Finally, they found four patterns of affect and creativity: affect can operate as an antecedent to creativity; as a direct consequence of creativity; as an indirect consequence of creativity; and affect can occur simultaneously with creative activity. Thus, it appears that people's feelings and creative cognitions are interwoven in several distinct ways within the complex fabric of their daily work lives.

Formal theory of creativity [edit]

Jürgen Schmidhuber's formal theory of creativity[84][85] postulates that creativity, curiosity and interestingness are by-products of a simple computational principle for measuring and optimizing learning progress. Consider an agent able to manipulate its environment and thus its own sensory inputs. The agent can use a black box optimization method such as reinforcement learning to learn (through informed trial and error) sequences of actions that maximize the expected sum of its future reward signals. There are extrinsic reward signals for achieving externally given goals, such as finding food when hungry. But Schmidhuber's objective function to be maximized also includes an additional, intrinsic term to model "wow-effects." This non-standard term motivates purely creative behavior of the agent even when there are no external goals. A wow-effect is formally defined as follows. As the agent is creating and predicting and encoding the continually growing history of actions and sensory inputs, it keeps improving the predictor or encoder, which can be implemented as an artificial neural network or some other machine learning device that can exploit regularities in the data to improve its performance over time. The improvements can be measured precisely, by computing the difference in computational costs (storage size, number of required synapses, errors, time) needed to encode new observations before and after learning. This difference depends on the encoder's present subjective knowledge, which changes over time, but the theory formally takes this into account. The cost difference measures the strength of the present "wow-effect" due to sudden improvements in data compression or computational speed. It becomes an intrinsic reward signal for the action selector. The objective function thus motivates the action optimizer to create action sequences causing more wow-effects. Irregular, random data (or noise) do not permit any wow-effects or learning progress, and thus are "boring" by nature (providing no reward). Already known and predictable regularities also are boring. Temporarily interesting are only the initially unknown, novel, regular patterns in both actions and observations. This motivates the agent to perform continual, open-ended, active, creative exploration.
According to Schmidhuber, his objective function explains the activities of scientists, artists and comedians.[86][87] For example, physicists are motivated to create experiments leading to observations obeying previously unpublished physical laws permitting better data compression. Likewise, composers receive intrinsic reward for creating non-arbitrary melodies with unexpected but regular harmonies that permit wow-effects through data compression improvements. Similarly, a comedian gets intrinsic reward for "inventing a novel joke with an unexpected punch line, related to the beginning of the story in an initially unexpected but quickly learnable way that also allows for better compression of the perceived data."[88] Schmidhuber argues that that ongoing computer hardware advances will greatly scale up rudimentary artificial scientists and artists[clarification needed] based on simple implementations of the basic principle since 1990.[89] He used the theory to create low-complexity art[90] and an attractive human face.[91]

Creativity and mental health [edit]

A study by psychologist J. Philippe Rushton found creativity to correlate with intelligence and psychoticism.[92] Another study found creativity to be greater in schizotypal than in either normal or schizophrenic individuals. While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex, schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex.[93] This study hypothesizes that such individuals are better at accessing both hemispheres, allowing them to make novel associations at a faster rate. In agreement with this hypothesis, ambidexterity is also associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals. Three recent studies by Mark Batey and Adrian Furnham have demonstrated the relationships between schizotypal[94][95] and hypomanic personality [96] and several different measures of creativity.
Particularly strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders, particularly manic-depressive disorder (a.k.a. bipolar disorder) and depressive disorder (a.k.a. unipolar disorder). In Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, Kay Redfield Jamison summarizes studies of mood-disorder rates in writers, poets and artists. She also explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway (who shot himself after electroconvulsive treatment), Virginia Woolf (who drowned herself when she felt a depressive episode coming on), composer Robert Schumann (who died in a mental institution), and even the famed visual artist Michelangelo.
A study looking at 300,000 persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar depression, and their relatives, found overrepresentation in creative professions for those with bipolar disorder as well as for undiagnosed siblings of those with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. There was no overall overrepresenation, but overrepresentation for artistic occupations, among those diagnosed with schizophrenia. There was no association for those with unipolar depression or their relatives. [97]
Another study involving more than one million people, conducted by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute, reported a number of correlations between creative occupations and mental illnesses. Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and substance abuse, and were almost twice as likely as the general population to kill themselves. Dancers and photographers were also more likely to have bipolar disorder.[98]
However, as a group, those in the creative professions were no more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than other people, although they were more likely to have a close relative with a disorder, including anorexia and, to some extent, autism, the Journal of Psychiatric Research reports.[98]
According to psychologist Robert Epstein, PhD, creativity can be obstructed through stress.[99]

Creativity in various contexts [edit]

An electric wire reel reused as a center table in a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair. The creativity of this designer in reusing this waste was used with good effects to the environment.
Creativity has been studied from a variety of perspectives and is important in numerous contexts. Most of these approaches are undisciplinary, and it is therefore difficult to form a coherent overall view.[28] The following sections examine some of the areas in which creativity is seen as being important.

Creativity Profiles [edit]

Creativity can be expresses in a number of different forms, depending on the unique people and environments it exists. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. One model suggests that there are kinds to produce growth, innovation, speed, etc. These are referred to as the four "Creativity Profiles" that can help achieve such goals.[100]
(i) Incubate (Long-term Development)
(ii) Imagine (Breakthrough Ideas)
(iii) Improve (Incremental Adjustments)
(iv) Invest (Short-term Goals)
Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each
(i) "Idea Generation" (Fluency, Originality, Incubation and Illumination)
(ii) "Personality" (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity)
(iii) "Motivation" (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Achievement)
(iv) "Confidence" (Producing, Sharing and Implementing)
This model was developed in a sample of 1000 working adults using the statistical techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis by Structural Equation Modelling.[101]
An important aspect of the creativity profiling approach is to account for the tension between predicting the creative profile of an individual, as characterised by the psychometric approach, and the evidence that team creativity is founded on diversity and difference.[102]
One characteristic of creative people, as measured by some psychologists, is what is called divergent production. divergent production is the ability of a person to generate a diverse assortment, yet an appropriate amount of responses to a given situation.[103] One way of measuring divergent production is by administering the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking.[104] The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking assesses the diversity, quantity, and appropriateness of participants responses to a variety of open-ended questions.
Other researchers of creativity see the difference in creative people as a cognitive process of dedication to problem solving and developing expertise in the field of their creative expression. Hard working people study the work of people before them and within their current area, become experts in their fields, and then have the ability to add to and build upon previous information in innovative and creative ways. In a study of projects by design students, students who had more knowledge on their subject on average had greater creativity within their projects.[105]
The aspect of motivation within a person's personality may predict creativity levels in the person. Motivation stems from two different sources, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive within a person to participate or invest as a result of personal interest, desires, hopes, goals, etc. Extrinsic motivation is a drive from outside of a person and might take the form of payment, rewards, fame, approval from others, etc. Although extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can both increase creativity in certain cases, strictly extrinsic motivation often impedes creativity in people.[106]
From a personality-traits perspective, there are a number of traits that are associated with creativity in people.[107] Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences, are more self-confident, are more ambitious, self-accepting, impulsive, driven, dominant, and hostile, compared to people with less creativity.
From an evolutionary perspective, creativity may be a result of the outcome of years of generating ideas. As ideas are continuously generated, the need to evolve produces a need for new ideas and developments. As a result, people have been creating and developing new, innovative, and creative ideas to build our progress as a society.[108]
In studying exceptionally creative people in history, some common traits in lifestyle and environment are often found. Creative people in history usually had supportive parents, but rigid and non-nurturing. Most had an interest in their field at an early age, and most had a highly supportive and skilled mentor in their field of interest. Often the field they chose was relatively uncharted, allowing for their creativity to be expressed more in a field with less previous information. Most exceptionally creative people devoted almost all of their time and energy into their craft, and after about a decade had a creative breakthrough of fame. Their lives were marked with extreme dedication and a cycle of hard-work and breakthroughs as a result of their determination [109]
Another theory of creative people is the investment theory of creativity. This approach suggest that there are many individual and environmental factors that must exist in precise ways for extremelly high levels of creativity opposed to average levels of creativity. In the investment sense, a person with their particular characteristics in their particular environment may see an opportunity to devote their time and energy into something that has been overlooked by others. The creative person develops an undervalued or underrecognized idea to the point that it is established as a new and creative idea. Just like in the financial world, some investments are worth the buy in, while others are less productive and do not build to the extent that the investor expected. This investment theory of creativity views creativity in a unique perspective compared to others, by asserting that creativity might rely to some extent on the right investment of effort being added to a field at the right time in the right way.[110]

Creativity in diverse cultures [edit]

Creativity is viewed differently in different countries.[111] For example, cross-cultural research centred on Hong Kong found that Westerners view creativity more in terms of the individual attributes of a creative person, such as their aesthetic taste, while Chinese people view creativity more in terms of the social influence of creative people e.g. what they can contribute to society.[112] Mpofu et al. surveyed 28 African languages and found that 27 had no word which directly translated to 'creativity' (the exception being Arabic).[113] The principle of linguistic relativity, i.e. that language can affect thought, suggests that the lack of an equivalent word for 'creativity' may affect the views of creativity among speakers of such languages. However, more research would be needed to establish this, and there is certainly no suggestion that this linguistic difference makes people any less (or more) creative; Africa has a rich heritage of creative pursuits such as music, art, and storytelling. Nevertheless, it is true that there has been very little research on creativity in Africa,[114] and there has also been very little research on creativity in Latin America.[115] Creativity has been more thoroughly researched in the northern hemisphere, but here again there are cultural differences, even between countries or groups of countries in close proximity. For example, in Scandinavian countries, creativity is seen as an individual attitude which helps in coping with life's challenges,[116] while in Germany, creativity is seen more as a process that can be applied to help solve problems.[117]

Creativity in art and literature [edit]

Henry Moore's Reclining Figure
Most people associate creativity with the fields of art and literature. In these fields, originality is considered to be a sufficient condition for creativity, unlike other fields where both originality and appropriateness are necessary.[118]
Within the different modes of artistic expression, one can postulate a continuum extending from "interpretation" to "innovation". Established artistic movements and genres pull practitioners to the "interpretation" end of the scale, whereas original thinkers strive towards the "innovation" pole. Note that we conventionally expect some "creative" people (dancers, actors, orchestral members, etc.) to perform (interpret) while allowing others (writers, painters, composers, etc.) more freedom to express the new and the different.
Contrast alternative theories, for example:
  • artistic evolution, which stresses obeying established ("classical") rules and imitating or appropriating to produce subtly different but unshockingly understandable work. Compare with crafts.
  • artistic conversation, as in Surrealism, which stresses the depth of communication when the creative product is the language.
In the art practice and theory of Davor Dzalto, human creativity is taken as a basic feature of both the personal existence of human being and art production. For this thinker, creativity is a basic cultural and anthropological category, since it enables human manifestation in the world as a "real presence" in contrast to the progressive "virtualization" of the world.

Psychological examples from science and mathematics [edit]

Jacques Hadamard, in his book Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, uses introspection to describe mathematical thought processes. In contrast to authors who identify language and cognition, he describes his own mathematical thinking as largely wordless, often accompanied by mental images that represent the entire solution to a problem. He surveyed 100 of the leading physicists of his day (ca. 1900), asking them how they did their work. Many of the responses mirrored his own.
Hadamard described the experiences of the mathematicians/theoretical physicists Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hermann von Helmholtz, Henri Poincaré and others as viewing entire solutions with "sudden spontaneity."[120]
The same has been reported in literature by many others, such as Denis Brian,[121] G. H. Hardy,[122] Walter Heitler,[123] B. L. van der Waerden,[124] and Harold Ruegg.[125]
To elaborate on one example, Einstein, after years of fruitless calculations, suddenly had the solution to the general theory of relativity revealed in a dream "like a giant die making an indelible impress, a huge map of the universe outlined itself in one clear vision."[121]
Hadamard described the process as having steps (i) preparation, (ii) incubation, (iv) illumination, and (v) verification of the five-step Graham Wallas creative-process model, leaving out (iii) intimation, with the first three cited by Hadamard as also having been put forth by Helmholtz:[126]
Marie-Louise von Franz, a colleague of the eminent psychiatrist Carl Jung, noted that in these unconscious scientific discoveries the "always recurring and important factor ... is the simultaneity with which the complete solution is intuitively perceived and which can be checked later by discursive reasoning." She attributes the solution presented "as an archetypal pattern or image."[127] As cited by von Franz,[128] according to Jung, "Archetypes ... manifest themselves only through their ability to organize images and ideas, and this is always an unconscious process which cannot be detected until afterwards."[129]

Creative industries and services [edit]

Today, creativity forms the core activity of a growing section of the global economy—the so-called "creative industries"—capitalistically generating (generally non-tangible) wealth through the creation and exploitation of intellectual property or through the provision of creative services. The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001 provides an overview of the creative industries in the UK. The creative professional workforce is becoming a more integral part of industrialized nations' economies.
Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, related crafts, as well as marketing, strategy, some aspects of scientific research and development, product development, some types of teaching and curriculum design, and more. Since many creative professionals (actors and writers, for example) are also employed in secondary professions, estimates of creative professionals are often inaccurate. By some estimates, approximately 10 million US workers are creative professionals; depending upon the depth and breadth of the definition, this estimate may be double.

Creativity in other professions [edit]

Isaac Newton's law of gravity is popularly attributed to a creative leap he experienced when observing a falling apple.
Creativity is also seen as being increasingly important in a variety of other professions. Architecture and industrial design are the fields most often associated with creativity, and more generally the fields of design and design research. These fields explicitly value creativity, and journals such as Design Studies have published many studies on creativity and creative problem solving.[130]
Fields such as science and engineering have, by contrast, experienced a less explicit (but arguably no less important) relation to creativity. Simonton[25] shows how some of the major scientific advances of the 20th century can be attributed to the creativity of individuals. This ability will also be seen as increasingly important for engineers in years to come.[131]
Accounting has also been associated with creativity with the popular euphemism creative accounting. Although this term often implies unethical practices, Amabile[118] has suggested that even this profession can benefit from the (ethical) application of creative thinking.
In a recent global survey of approximately 1600 CEO's, the leadership trait that was considered to be most crucial for success was creativity.[132] This suggests that the world of business is beginning to accept that creativity is of value in a diversity of industries, rather than being simply the preserve of the creative industries. For instance, the civil service (opularly derided as wholly opposite to the creative), has benefitted from employing creative writers, from John Milton, to Anthony Trollope, to 'Flann O'Brien', who are capable of analysing the workings of their own institutions.[133]

Creativity in organizations [edit]

Training meeting in an eco-design stainless steel company in Brazil. The leaders among other things wish to cheer and encourage the workers in order to achieve a higher level of creativity.
It has been the topic of various research studies to establish that organizational effectiveness depends on the creativity of the workforce to a large extent. For any given organization, measures of effectiveness vary, depending upon its mission, environmental context, nature of work, the product or service it produces, and customer demands. Thus, the first step in evaluating organizational effectiveness is to understand the organization itself - how it functions, how it is structured, and what it emphasizes.
Amabile[118] argued that to enhance creativity in business, three components were needed:
  • Expertise (technical, procedural and intellectual knowledge),
  • Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems),
  • and Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation).
There are two types of motivation:
Six managerial practices to encourage motivation are:
  • Challenge – matching people with the right assignments;
  • Freedom – giving people autonomy choosing means to achieve goals;
  • Resources – such as time, money, space etc. There must be balance fit among resources and people;
  • Work group features – diverse, supportive teams, where members share the excitement, willingness to help and recognize each other's talents;
  • Supervisory encouragement – recognitions, cheering, praising;
  • Organizational support – value emphasis, information sharing, collaboration.
Nonaka, who examined several successful Japanese companies, similarly saw creativity and knowledge creation as being important to the success of organizations.[134] In particular, he emphasized the role that tacit knowledge has to play in the creative process.
In business, originality is not enough. The idea must also be appropriate—useful and actionable.[135][136] Creative competitive intelligence is a new solution to solve this problem. According to Reijo Siltala it links creativity to innovation process and competitive intelligence to creative workers.

Economic views of creativity [edit]

Economic approaches to creativity have focussed on three aspects - the impact of creativity on economic growth, methods of modelling markets for creativity, and the maximisation of economic creativity (innovation).
In the early 20th century, Joseph Schumpeter introduced the economic theory of creative destruction, to describe the way in which old ways of doing things are endogenously destroyed and replaced by the new. Some economists (such as Paul Romer) view creativity as an important element in the recombination of elements to produce new technologies and products and, consequently, economic growth. Creativity leads to capital, and creative products are protected by intellectual property laws.
Mark A. Runco and Daniel Rubenson have tried to describe a "psychoeconomic" model of creativity.[137] In such a model, creativity is the product of endowments and active investments in creativity; the costs and benefits of bringing creative activity to market determine the supply of creativity. Such an approach has been criticised for its view of creativity consumption as always having positive utility, and for the way it analyses the value of future innovations.[138]
The creative class is seen by some to be an important driver of modern economies. In his 2002 book, The Rise of the Creative Class, economist Richard Florida popularized the notion that regions with "3 T's of economic development: Technology, Talent and Tolerance" also have high concentrations of creative professionals and tend to have a higher level of economic development.
The creative industries in Europe - including the audiovisual sector - make a significant contribution to the EU economy, creating about 3% of EU GDP - corresponding to an annual market value of €500 billion - and employing about 6 million people. In addition, the sector plays a crucial role in fostering innovation, in particular for devices and networks.[139] The EU records the second highest TV viewing figures globally, producing more films than any other region in the world. In that respect, the newly proposed 'Creative Europe' programme will help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU.[140] The programme will play a consequential role in stimulating cross border co-operation, promoting peer learning and making these sectors more professional. The Commission will then propose a financial instrument run by the European Investment Bank to provide debt and equity finance for cultural and creative industries. The role of the non-state actors within the governance regarding Medias will not be neglected anymore due to a holistic approach .

Fostering creativity [edit]

Daniel Pink, in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind, repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century, argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. In this conceptual age, we will need to foster and encourage right-directed thinking (representing creativity and emotion) over left-directed thinking (representing logical, analytical thought). However, this simplification of 'right' versus 'left' brain thinking is not supported by the research data.[141]
Nickerson[142] provides a summary of the various creativity techniques that have been proposed. These include approaches that have been developed by both academia and industry:
  1. Establishing purpose and intention
  2. Building basic skills
  3. Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge
  4. Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration
  5. Building motivation, especially internal motivation
  6. Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks
  7. Focusing on mastery and self-competition
  8. Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity
  9. Providing opportunities for choice and discovery
  10. Developing self-management (metacognitive skills)
  11. Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance
  12. Providing balance
Some see the conventional system of schooling as "stifling" of creativity and attempt (particularly in the pre-school/kindergarten and early school years) to provide a creativity-friendly, rich, imagination-fostering environment for young children.[142][143][144] Researchers have seen this as important because technology is advancing our society at an unprecedented rate and creative problem solving will be needed to cope with these challenges as they arise.[144] In addition to helping with problem solving, creativity also helps students identify problems where others have failed to do so.[142][143][145] See the Waldorf School as an example of an education program that promotes creative thought.
Promoting intrinsic motivation and problem solving are two areas where educators can foster creativity in students. Students are more creative when they see a task as intrinsically motivating, valued for its own sake.[143][144][146][147] To promote creative thinking educators need to identify what motivates their students and structure teaching around it. Providing students with a choice of activities to complete allows them to become more intrinsically motivated and therefore creative in completing the tasks.[142][148]
Teaching students to solve problems that do not have well defined answers is another way to foster their creativity. This is accomplished by allowing students to explore problems and redefine them, possibly drawing on knowledge that at first may seem unrelated to the problem in order to solve it.[142][143][144][146]
Several different researchers have proposed methods of increasing the creativity of an individual. Such ideas range from the psychological-cognitive, such as Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process, Synectics, Science-based creative thinking, Purdue Creative Thinking Program, and Edward de Bono's lateral thinking; to the highly structured, such as TRIZ (the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving) and its variant Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (developed by the Russian scientist Genrich Altshuller), and Computer-Aided Morphological analysis.

Understanding and enhancing the creative process with new technologies [edit]

A simple but accurate review on this new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) angle for promoting creativity has been written by Todd Lubart, an invitation full of creative ideas to develop further this new field.
Groupware and other Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) platforms are now the stage of Network Creativity on the web or on other private networks. These tools have made more obvious the existence of a more connective, cooperative and collective nature of creativity rather than the prevailing individual one. Creativity Research on Global Virtual Teams is showing that the creative process is affected by the national identities, cognitive and conative profiles, anonymous interactions at times and many other factors affecting the teams members, depending on the early or later stages of the cooperative creative process. They are also showing how NGO's cross-cultural virtual team's innovation in Africa would also benefit from the pooling of best global practices online. Such tools enhancing cooperative creativity may have a great impact on society and as such should be tested while they are built following the Motto: "Build the Camera while shooting the film". Some European FP7 scientific programs like Paradiso are answering a need for advanced experimentally driven research including large-scale experimentation test-beds to discover the technical, societal and economic implications of such groupware and collaborative tools to the Internet.
On the other hand, creativity research may one day be pooled with a computable metalanguage like IEML from the University of Ottawa Collective Intelligence Chair, Pierre Levy. It might be a good tool to provide an interdisciplinary definition and a rather unified theory of creativity. The creative processes being highly fuzzy, the programming of cooperative tools for creativity and innovation should be adaptive and flexible. Empirical Modelling seems to be a good choice for Humanities Computing.
If all the activity of the universe could be traced with appropriate captors, it is likely that one could see the creative nature of the universe to which humans are active contributors. After the web of documents, the Web of Things might shed some light on such a universal creative phenomenon which should not be restricted to humans. In order to trace and enhance cooperative and collective creativity, Metis Reflexive Global Virtual Team has worked for the last few years on the development of a Trace Composer at the intersection of personal experience and social knowledge.
Metis Reflexive Team has also identified a paradigm for the study of creativity to bridge European theory of "useless" and non-instrumentalized creativity, North American more pragmatic creativity and Chinese culture stressing more creativity as a holistic process of continuity rather than radical change and originality. This paradigm is mostly based on the work of the German philosopher Hans Joas, one that emphasizes the creative character of human action. This model allows also for a more comprehensive theory of action. Joas elaborates some implications of his model for theories of social movements and social change. The connection between concepts like creation, innovation, production and expression is facilitated by the creativity of action as a metaphore but also as a scientific concept.
The Creativity and Cognition conference series, sponsored by the ACM and running since 1993, has been an important venue for publishing research on the intersection between technology and creativity. The conference now runs biennially, next taking place in 2011.[dated info]

Social attitudes to creativity [edit]

Although the benefits of creativity to society as a whole have been noted,[149] social attitudes about this topic remain divided. The wealth of literature regarding the development of creativity[150] and the profusion of creativity techniques indicate wide acceptance, at least among academics, that creativity is desirable.
There is, however, a dark side to creativity, in that it represents a "quest for a radical autonomy apart from the constraints of social responsibility".[151] In other words, by encouraging creativity we are encouraging a departure from society's existing norms and values. Expectation of conformity runs contrary to the spirit of creativity. Ken Robinson argues that the current education system is "educating people out of their creativity". [152][153]
Nevertheless, employers are increasingly valuing creative skills. A report by the Business Council of Australia, for example, has called for a higher level of creativity in graduates.[154] The ability to "think outside the box" is highly sought after. However, the above-mentioned paradox may well imply that firms pay lip service to thinking outside the box while maintaining traditional, hierarchical organization structures in which individual creativity is condemned.

See also [edit]

Notes [edit]

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  2. ^ (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999, 2000; Lubart & Mouchiroud, 2003; Runco, 1997, 2000; Sternberg & Lubart, 1996)
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  4. ^ a b c Kozbelt, Aaron; Beghetto, Ronald A. and Runco, Mark A. (2010). "Theories of Creativity". In James C. Kaufman and Robert J. Sternberg. The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73025-9. 
  5. ^ Gabora, Liane (1997). "The Origin and Evolution of Culture and Creativity". Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 1. 
  6. ^ a b Sternberg, Robert J. (2009). Jaime A. Perkins, Dan Moneypenny, Wilson Co, ed. Cognitive Psychology. CENGAGE Learning. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-495-50629-4. 
  7. ^ Sternberg, R.J. (2006). "The Nature of Creativity". Creativity Research Journal 18 (1): 87–98. 
  8. ^ Kaufman, James C.; Beghetto, Ronald A. (2009). "Beyond Big and Little: The Four C Model of Creativity". Review of General Psychology 13 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1037/a0013688. 
  9. ^ Boden, Margaret (2004). The Creative Mind: Myths And Mechanisms. Routledge. ISBN 0-297-82069-9. 
  10. ^ Robinson, Ken (1998). All our futures: Creativity, culture, education. National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education. Retrieved 2 October 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Craft, Anna (2001). "'Little C' creativity". In Craft, A., Jeffrey, B. and Leibling, M. Creativity in education. Continuum International. ISBN 0-8264-4863-1, 9780826448637 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  12. ^ Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1996). Creativity:Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-092820-4, 978-0060928209 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  13. ^ Simonton, D. K. (1997). "Creative Productivity: A Predictive and Explanatory Model of Career Trajectories and Landmarks". Psychological Review 104 (1): 66–89. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.104.1.66. 
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  15. ^ "And eke Job saith, that in hell is no order of rule. And albeit that God hath created all things in right order, and nothing without order, but all things be ordered and numbered, yet nevertheless they that be damned be not in order, nor hold no order."
  16. ^ a b c Władysław Tatarkiewicz, A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics, p. 244.
  17. ^ Albert, R. S.; Runco, M. A. (1999). ":A History of Research on Creativity". In Sternberg, R. J. Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge University Press. 
  18. ^ Plato, The Republic, Book X - wikisource:The Republic/Book X
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  128. ^ von Franz, 1992 297-298 and 314.
  129. ^ Jung, 1981, paragraph 440, p. 231.
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  131. ^ National Academy of Engineering (2005).
  132. ^
  133. ^ C. Sullivan, Literature in the Civil Service: Sublime Bureaucracy (2013)
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  139. ^ by Markus Karlsson v. Violaine Hacker, PhD European law
  140. ^
  141. ^
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  150. ^ see (Feldman, 1999) for example
  151. ^ (McLaren, 1999)
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  153. ^
  154. ^ (BCA, 2006)

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Further reading [edit]

Videos on creativity [edit]